1. What is Pallet Racking?
Pallet Racking is the generic term given to describe a range of different types of steel structures that are used for the storage of pallets both on and above the floor on shelves, created by beams, in industrial warehouse settings. Moreover, Space Rescue have a large range of the most popular warehouse Pallet Racking brands for sale in both new & 2nd Hand within Adelaide, Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth.
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2. Dimensions and sizes of Pallet Racking components
A variety of standard frame heights, bay widths & shelf/frame depths makes this type of shelving suitable for almost any location. Please refer below for more information on individual Warehouse Pallet Racking components.
a) Frame heights
To list, please find below some common frame heights.
b) Beam lengths (or Bay widths)
Below are some common beam lengths. To explain, these are the resulting measurements taken between the uprights. The overall beam length is approximately 100mm more when you include the beam end connectors that provide the connection to the upright.
c) Frame widths (or Shelf depths)
Below are some common frame widths.
[Note: A frame depth of 838mm (or 840mm) specifically suits Australian Standard Hardwood Pallets. Other pallet or skid sizes may work better with a deeper frame and use of Mesh Decks]
3. Pallet Rack Beams
Beams are horizontal members used to directly support the loads imparted by pallets and shelving set-ups wiith mesh decks or boards. They are typically orange in colour.
When discussing beam length, the distance between the end connectors is typically used. The term used for this length is ‘clear entry’. It refers to the freely available horizontal space for storage between these connectors. Therefore, the overall beam length is made up of the ‘clear entry’ length plus the width of the two end connectors at each end of the beam. Furthermore, the clear available space for storage between frames is not too dismilar to the beam’s ‘clear entry’. It only differs by the end connector material thickness plus any small gaps between the inside of the connector and the outside of the frame upight. Please refer above for a list of some common sizes.
b) Beam Profile Height
The profile height is a measure of the height of the long uniform section that is between the end connectors. They are typically rectangular in shape and range in height from 50mm to 140mm. Most are a rectangular box sections though a few are open sections with a gap on the bottom rectangular side.
c) Beam End Connectors
As has been noted above, the ends of the beams are referred to as the end connectors whilst the steel piece joining them is called the beam section. Welded to the beam section are the end connectors. Beam sections come in a variety of profiles including ‘Box’, “I’ (similar to RSJ’s) and ‘Open’ (upside down U section that is open at the bottom). Their height generally ranges from 40mm up to 150mm.
A number of factors influence the safe load carrying capacity of the beam including end connector size and effectiveness (also known as fixity which is a measure of rotation), the size and shape of the beam profile and the grades of steel used within the beam itself.
A bright safety orange or blue colour is the most common finish for the beams. The type of paint used is a powder-coat enamel for the beams. Other finishes are also available. We also stock 2nd Hand Pallet Racking for sale.
4. Pallet Rack Frames
Frames (or End Frames) consist of two vertical uprights (or posts or columns) connected by frame bracing.
a) Uprights (or Posts)
The process for making uprights is by cold rolling coil steel within a rollformer. A variety of steel thicknesses, shapes and sizes are both used and created depending on the strength required and application of this important piece of the frame.
Bracing is the term given to slim strut like members that are used to join two uprights together in a truss like manner. Also, there are two types; horizontal and diagonal frame braces.
c) Base Plates
At the bottom of each upright is the baseplate or footplate. Firstly, each upright imparts a vertical point load in to the ground. Then, the footplate reduces the point load by spreading this vertical load in to the slab more evenly. Finally, the baseplate secures the structure to the concrete floor with the use of floor anchors.
d) Row Spacers (also known as Frame Spacers)
In Double Sided Pallet racking runs, we use a Row Spacer to separate the two adjacent Pallet Racks with a uniform spacing. These spacers not only improve front-to-back rigidity but also ensure, during installation, that the appropriate space is created so that pallets on either side do not interfere with each other during placement and retrieval.
The strength of the frame is dependent upon both the uprights and bracing pattern used.
f) Finish for Posts and Bracing
A pre-galvanised (or Zinc finish) is the most common finish now for Posts and Frame Bracing. Previously, the posts and bracing had a powder-coat finish. To save on manufacturing time and cost and hence remain competitive, the painting of frames has largely stopped.
5. How to calculate the overall length of Pallet Racking
To explain, this can be determined by the number of pallet racking beam lengths in the run plus the addition of frame thicknesses (or upright width). Also, the designated beam length represents the distance between the left and right hand end frames or beam end connectors. The name given for this dimension is the clear entry bay width
In detail, to calculate the length of a Starter Bay, you would simply need to add the widths of the two end frame or posts (typically around 90mm) on both the left and right side plus the designated beam length.
Finally, for each Add-On Bay, you would need to add the designated beam length plus only one end frame width. As shown above, the width of the end frame that you are joining on to is already included within the starter bay length.
6. Second Hand Pallet Racking For Sale
Space Rescue like to be able to offer a large variety of 2nd Hand Pallet Racking, particularly in most of the major brands. They include Dexion, Colby, Schaefer, Apex and APC; to list just some of them. We take pride in what we sell and hence source only good condition used Pallet Racking frames and beams. In addition, Space Rescue will often buy back your used pallet racking depending upon its condition and our stock holding at the time.
a) Second Hand Pallet Racking Frames
Typically, the most common frame depth available is 838mm though others are also available. A variety of heights are also available in our Second Hand Pallet Racking stocks.
b) Second Hand Pallet Racking Beams
Also, the most common sizes of used beams available create a 2591mm (or 8.5 foot) or 2743mm (or 9 foot) clear entry bay width. As has been noted above, this term ‘clear entry’ refers to the clear available space for storage between adjacent frames.
c) Second Hand Pallet Racking Shelving Materials For Sale
In addition to the above, at times we also have a choice of second hand Mesh Decks and second hand Pallet Racking Boards available for sale.
7. How to select your Pallet Racking Storage Structure
Depending on the nature of the business, you may employ a combination of types of pallet storage structure to optimize your operation.
You will need to consider the following pallet factors when selecting the most suitable storage structure:
- Firstly, the type of pallet
- Then, the size of pallet; that is the width (including product overhang), depth (including product overhang) and height of the product on the pallet (including the pallet itself)
- Then, the maximum weight of the loaded pallet (including the pallet itself)
- Then, the commonality of pallet (that is, commonality of the product)
- And finally, the required accessibility of the pallet (taking in to account product life, expiry etc)
Below is a list of the most common types of both Static and Dynamic Pallet Racking structures available for sale by Space Rescue.
8. Static Warehouse Pallet Racking For Sale
Static Structures are warehouse Pallet Racking structures without any moving parts. However, that is not to say that these structures are not designed to deflect under load. To explain further, the pallet or stored item does not move after storage.
a) Selective Pallet Racking
Selective Racking is the simplest, most common and least expensive of the Pallet Rack family. It is ideal for use in situations where you require selective access to each individual pallet from the forklift aisle. This style of Warehouse Racking consists of just vertical frames, horizontal beams, row spacers levelling shims and floor anchors.
b) Pallet Rack Shelving
Pallet Rack Shelving is often thought of as shelving for pallets or palletised goods. There are other applications for warehouse Pallet Racking including standard flat shelving. Adding specific product to the beams creates a flat shelf surface for Pallet Rack Shelving. These products include shelf boards, board stiffeners and mesh decks.
The picture below is a good example. It shows the use of boards on the lower levels of the pallet racking bays and pallets stored above.
c) Drive In Racking
Drive In Dexion Pallet Racking consists of multiple lanes for the storage of multiple identical pallets. It basically suits warehouses where there are many pallets of the same S.K.U. (‘stock keeping unit’).
It is one of the most space efficient storage systems available. To explain, the reason it is such an effective way to store your pallets is due simply to the reduced number of forklift access aisles to service a high quantity of pallets compared with Selective or Double Deep structures.
Pallets are stored on multiple rail levels within each lane (or bay). The product on each pallet within the same bay needs to be identical as you are only generally able to access the pallet that is closest to the aisle. In summary, the forklift drives into a lane to deposit and retrieve pallets from this integrated rail and post structure.
d) Double Deep Pallet Racking
Double Deep Racking usage is recommended for those businesses with a range of S.K.U.’s (‘stock keeping units’) that require multiple pallets to fulfill safety stock levels. It is the second most common type of both structure used and pallet racking for sale.
As the name suggests, pallets are stored two deep from an aisle. The rear pallet may not be accessed until the front pallet (ie. the pallet closest to the aisle) has been removed. Due to pallet commonality, this does not create a problem unless there are stock rotational requirements due to expiry date issues.
This style of rack requires a special forklift with the ability to reach in to the second pallet position. Depending on the type of forklift used, it is sometimes recommended that pallet guide rails be used on the upper levels to assist the forklift operator place and retrieve pallets safely on upper pallet storage levels. Double Deep Rails run from the aisle to the rear storage location.
e) Narrow Aisle Racking
Narrow Aisle Racking achieves higher storage to footprint ratios than Selective of equivalent pallet storage capacity. In short, smaller aisles take up less space. It must be remembered that special forklifts and picking machines are needed to service these aisles.
For very tall structures on a large footprint (also known as High Bay Warehouses), it is not uncommon for automated cranes to service them. With the economies of scale, the great expense of an ASRS (Automated Storage Retrieval System) can be justified with its speed and tireless 24/7 endurability.
You can use Pallet Racking to create a Pallet Rack Workbench. They are particularly sturdy. By joining bays together, you will be able to create any length of workbench.
g) Cantilever Racking
Cantilever Racking is not a style of Pallet Racking. However, it is a great way of storing long products such as pipes, tubes and long crates. Arms positioned at the same height creates a storage level. Support arms join to the post on one end only. This to provide open access on the aisle side. Both single and double sided structures are available.
h) Vertical Racking
Vertical Racking consists of Pallet Racking materials. It provdes a clever way for storing vertically; both long and light products, such as conduits and tubes, for example.
9. Dynamic Warehouse Pallet Racking Structures
Dynamic Structures are those racking systems where the product and/or structure moves as part of it’s operation. They are a great space saving alternative to traditional static pallet racking styles. However, these structures, with their gravity wheel lanes and mobile bases, are more expensive when compared to the cost per pallet storage position of static structures.
a) Push Back Racking
Push Back Racking offers the ‘best of both worlds’ in terms of greater selectivity and a lesser number of forklift aisles. This structure is typically 3 or more pallets deep and consists of a front wall of pallet sized openings. Within each opening is a lane with rails and rollers that feed pallets to the aisle by gravity.
This structure stores pallets by inserting them into a particular pallet opening and pushing the front pallet back up the lane. Retrieving a pallet simply involves working in reverse. Removing the rear pallet enables the pallets behind to slide forward. This therefore positions and reveals a new front pallet.
The one bay can store different pallets without limiting selectivity, however each bay level must store pallets of identical make-up. Similar to Drive-in Rack, ‘FILO’ pallet movement (ie. first-in, last-out) does not suit product with expiry dates.
b) Flow Through Racking
Flow Through Racking offers several major advantages including dense storage, limited aisle space requirements, good selectivity and excellent stock rotation.
c) Mobile Racking
Mobile Racking achieves greater storage density, while maintaining selectivity, by moving the rack to create the aisle. This type of Pallet Rack is very similar to Storage Compactors in functionality. To explain, it consists of Pallet Racking runs that sit on top of mobille bases. Multiple runs require only one aisle space. When rows of rack are moved to create an aisle gap between racks you are then able to access the pallets adjacent to the newly formed aisle.
10. Accessories for Warehouse Pallet Racking
a) Upright Protectors
Upright Protectors obviously protect the upright from damage and are available in a variety of types. Impact from a forklift is the most common cause of damage. Examples include Corner Guards, Column Guards and Rack End Protectors.
b) Pallet Rails
Pallet Rails run from the aisle to the rear pallet location particularly to help the forklift operator safely and correctly position pallets. These are common in Double Deep and Narrow Aisle Pallet Racking structures.
c) Mesh Decks
Mesh Decks provide extra protection for either skid or non-standard pallet sizes. They also provide shelf storage within pallet racking.
d) Fork Entry Bars
Fork Entry Bars are used when storing products that are not stored on pallets. An example of this is timber boards. Multiple fork entry bars sit directly on top of a pair of beams to create a support level. They create a gap approximately 70mm between the underside of the product and the top of the beam.
e) Pallet Support Bars
Pallet Support Bars create additional support particularly for heavily loaded pallets and skids. Multiple pallet support bars sit directly on top of a pair of beams to create a support level. This level typically sits about 5mm above the top beam surface.
f) Pallets & Skids
Both pallets and skids provide a strong stable base for placing products on. The materials used to make pallets and skids is specifically timber, aluminium and steel.
g) Pallet Cages & Stillages
Both Pallet Cages and Stillages contain loose items within the confines of a pallet footprint. They simplify the handling of product.
11. Applications for Pallet Racking
Pallet Racking is essentially industrial shelving for both pallets and skids. Lower shelf levels store other product in many situations. Placing boards or mesh decks on top of the beams (or rails) will create Pallet Rack Shelving or Industrial Shelving.
With a clean open design and a choice of either board (for Pallet Rack Shelving), mesh decks, pallet support bars or fork entry bars; Pallet Racking may be used for a large variety of applications within warehouses, factories, industrial chillers, industrial freezers and industrial units.
12. Availability, Offering & Popularity
Space Rescue typically have good stocks of warehouse Pallet Racking available for sale in our capital city warehouses. We deliver & install across Australia including to all regional areas and towns including Geelong, Ballarat, Bendigo, Albury, Wodonga, Gold Coast, Sunshine Coast, Toowoomba, Newcastle, Central Coast, Canberra, Wollongong, Wodonga and Bunbury. Alternatively, you may pick-up from us if you prefer from one of our capital city warehouses. Our offering includes pallet racking installation, dismantling, relocation and pallet racking inspection. The brands we carry specifically include Dexion, Colby, Schaefer, APC, Brownbuilt and Apex Pallet Racking.